Bacteria



Soil Secrets 1:  Bacteria etc.

Michael Martin Melendrez talks about soil micro-organisms. The difference between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, facultative anaerobes, hypervirulency and its causes an then he relates these to possible problems with compost 'tea', food safety, etc..





Lots of Microorganisms

not necessarily in soil ... but this is one other good way to get to know these most important and too devalued amazing creatures


Bacteria (singularbacterium) are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms


Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria are present in most habitats on Earth, growing in soil,acidic hot springsradioactive waste,[2] water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth,[3] forming a biomass that exceeds that of all plants and animals.[4] Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphereand putrefaction. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the phyla of bacteria have species that can be grown in the laboratory.[5] The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora as there are human cells in the body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and as gut flora.[6] The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of theimmune system, and a few are beneficial. However, a few species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera,syphilisanthraxleprosy, and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa.[7] In developed countriesantibiotics are used to treat bacterial infectionsand in agriculture, so antibiotic resistance is becoming common. In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment, the production ofcheese and yogurt through fermentation, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.[8]

Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and othereukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor. These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria andArchaea.[9]

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